## Same as figures 2 and 3 for γ = 5 (left panel) and γ = 10 (right panel)

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**Figure 4.** Same as figures 2 and 3 for γ = 5 (left panel) and γ = 10 (right panel). These results approach the limit of an effective one-dimensional system, i.e. γ 1.

**Abstract**

We consider a spin–orbit coupled system of particles in an external trap that is represented by a deformed harmonic oscillator potential. The spin–orbit interaction is a Rashba interaction that does not commute with the trapping potential and requires a full numerical treatment in order to obtain the spectrum. The effect of a Zeeman term is also considered. Our results demonstrate that variable spectral gaps occur as a function of strength of the Rashba interaction and deformation of the harmonic trapping potential. The single-particle density of states and the critical strength for superfluidity vary tremendously with the interaction parameter. The strong variations with Rashba coupling and deformation imply that the few- and many-body physics of spin–orbit coupled systems can be manipulated by variation of these parameters.