10.6084/m9.figshare.1011658.v1
K Caldeira
N P Myhrvold
Temperature results for CMIP5 models that have performed the <em>abrupt4xCO2</em> simulations (black dots)
2013
IOP Publishing
CMIP 5 models
CMIP 5 results
som
CO 2 increase
equilibrium warming
equilibrium temperature change
Model Intercomparison Project
CMIP 5 simulation results
CO 2 concentration increase
climate feedback parameter
20 simulation results
temperature response
2013-09-30 00:00:00
article
https://iop.figshare.com/articles/figure/_Temperature_results_for_CMIP5_models_that_have_performed_the_em_abrupt4xCO2_em_simulations_black_do/1011658
<p><strong>Figure 2.</strong> Temperature results for CMIP5 models that have performed the <em>abrupt4xCO2</em> simulations (black dots). Also shown are fits to this data using the functions described in the text: θ<sub>1-exp</sub>, green; θ<sub>2-exp</sub>, blue; θ<sub>3-exp</sub>, brown; θ<sub>1D</sub>, red. The left vertical axis shows the fraction of equilibrium temperature change (i.e., Δ<em>T</em>/Δ<em>T</em><sub>4<b>×</b></sub>); the right vertical axis indicates the absolute change in global mean temperature. Fit parameters are listed in SOM tables S3–S5 (available at <a href="http://stacks.iop.org/ERL/8/034039/mmedia" target="_blank">stacks.iop.org/ERL/8/034039/mmedia</a>).</p> <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>The temperature response of atmosphere–ocean climate models is analyzed based on atmospheric CO<sub>2</sub> step-function-change simulations submitted to phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). From these simulations and a control simulation, we estimate adjusted radiative forcing, the climate feedback parameter, and effective climate system thermal inertia, and we show that these results can be used to predict the temperature response to time-varying CO<sub>2</sub> concentrations. We evaluate several kinds of simple mathematical models for the CMIP5 simulation results, including single- and multiple-exponential models and a one-dimensional ocean-diffusion model. All of these functional forms, except the single-exponential model, can produce curves that fit most CMIP5 results quite well for both continuous and step-function CO<sub>2</sub>-change pathways. Choice of model for any particular application would include consideration of factors such as the number of free parameters to be constrained and the conception of the underlying mechanistic model. Smooth curve fits to the CMIP5 simulation results realize approximately half (range 38%–61%) of equilibrium warming within the first decade after a CO<sub>2</sub> concentration increase, but approximately one quarter (range 14%–40%) of equilibrium warming occurs more than a century after the CO<sub>2</sub> increase. Following an instantaneous quadrupling of atmospheric CO<sub>2</sub>, fits to four of the 20 simulation results reach 4 ° C of warming within the first decade, but fits to three of the 20 simulation results require more than a century to reach 4 ° C. These results indicate the need to reduce uncertainty in the temporal response of climate models and to consider this uncertainty when evaluating the risks posed by climate change.</p>